SREE 2017 Spring Conference
March 1-4, Washington, DC
"Suspension and Achievement: Do the Effects Vary by Type and Frequency?"
Author: NaYoung Hwang
Literature shows that receiving an out-of-school suspension is linked with negative educational outcomes, such as lower grades, lower achievement growth, and higher dropout rates. However, because these findings are based on comparisons between suspended students and non-suspended students or based on school level analysis, to what extent the associations are causal is still unclear. In this study, I ask the following questions: (a) What are the effects of receiving suspension on the educational achievement of suspended students? (b) Do the effects of suspension vary across suspension types (i.e., in-school suspension vs. out-of-school suspension)? (c) Are the effects of suspension on the educational achievement of suspended students non-linear? That is, are the effects of receiving suspension once different from the effects of receiving suspension multiple times? I used administrative data from one public school district in California. The sample of the studies includes data on 7th grade through 11th grade students in 17 different schools over a four-year period from 2009-2010 through 2011-2012. The results show that receiving out-of-school suspension multiple times hinders both math and ELA achievement, whereas receiving in-school suspension and one-time out-of-school suspension may not hamper the educational achievement of suspended students.